SUCCESS IS NOT THE ABSENCE OF PROBLEMS BUT THE ABILITY TO DEAL WITH THEM
In this you will find the information concerning the cause of the problem along with some recommended solutions and procedures helpful in solving these carpet cleaning problems. Should you need further assistance consult Cleancare on 0395900342 or interstate customers can call toll free on 1800335007.
It is the inherent nature of the cleaning business that problems will occur. Even with proper training and technique, problems can still happen. There is always a reason why. Professional carpet cleaning technicians need to be prepared to identify and remedy problems quickly and effectively. This will always build customer confidence and help keep costs associated with claims and rework to a minimum. In short, a service company that can minimise and correct problems effectively will be more profitable. Cleancare provides a partnership with the professional carpet cleaning technician by providing the necessary technical product "Solutions" to accomplish this.
CAUSE: Browning is the yellowish or amber discolouration that can become visible after a wet cleaning procedure. Cellulose is the term that describes matter derived from plants. Cellulosic matter oxidises or degrades as it ages. This process has a tendency to produce a natural dye that causes the discolouration. This is a natural process that occurs in all cellulosic matter. Newer carpets will have less potential for browning than older carpets because the cellulosic matter has not had time to degrade. An excellent example of this process is the yellowish discolouration that occurs in the daily newspaper as it ages. Newspaper is a form of cellulosic material. Many fibres we encounter in cleaning are cellulosic. They include cotton, jute and rayon. Carpets may contain different fibre blends. If any of the fibres are cellulosic, the potential for browning will exist. Rayon (synthetic fibre) is derived from wood pulp and also carries cellulosic properties. The potential for browning can be increased by over wetting, exposure to high pH and improper drying. Potential for browning is always present when cleaning cellulosic fibres, the natural dye that is produced by the oxidation of cellulose is present before the carpet is even cleaned. It is not easily visible or a problem, until the carpet is exposed to moisture. As the carpet dries, wicking action causes a concentration of this dye at the highest point, usually the tips of the carpet fibres. Browning can be a problem in synthetic carpets that contain jute or cotton backing materials. The jute and cotton backing materials is a form of cellulose and has a very high potential for browning. Browning has also been reported in total synthetic carpets. Accumulations of cellulosic matter embedded in the carpet are cited as the cause. One common problem is the residue left from granular dry cleaning compounds that contain cellulose. Browning is easier to remove from synthetic fibres and maybe impossible to remove from wool in certain cases.
SOLUTION: There are several ways to deal with browning problems.
CAUSE: Most carpet backing fibres have some reaction when exposed to moisture. Natural jute backings have a tendency to shrink while synthetic backings will remain unaffected or have a tendency to expand. It is very common for some synthetic backing carpets to experience buckling or ripples after wet cleaning, In some carpets both natural and synthetic backing materials are used in conjunction with each other. The different expansion rates of the two backings can result in severe buckling and even contribute to delamination if adhesive bonds are not adequate. It is important that upon your pre inspection of any carpet before cleaning that shrinkage or unusual looseness is noted on the invoice. SOLUTION: Corrections should be made prior to cleaning. Standard carpet stretching procedures should be accomplished by experienced carpet installation and repair technicians. Stretching and buckling is not the cleaners fault with the exception of over wetting. The customer should be informed that in most cases of buckling or rippling, the carpet will return to normal when completely dry.
CAUSE: Many dyes are sensitive to the effects of soils, pollutants and gases found in our environment. As these elements pass over the surface of the carpet, discolouration can result. this is called fume fading. Damage from exposure to ultraviolet rays will also effect dyes. The results of these effect may not be apparent until the carpet is cleaned. Many common household substances have also been found to cause discolouration. They include:
Always follow labelled instructions and dilutions of all carpet cleaning products. The use of strippers and bleaches should be avoided and used only as a last resort and with the customers permission and release. During your spotting procedures, you may encounter drastic colour changes when using strong acid and alkalies. Some dyes used in manufacturing carpet are indicator type dyes. They are sensitive to strong acid and alkalies. They carry some of the same properties as the dyes used in the manufacture of pH indicator paper will change colour when exposed to different pH levels. NOTE: Many substances that will cause discolouration need heat and/or moisture to become active. Products containing Benzoyl Peroxide and powdered bleach or pool chemicals are some good examples, they can already be present in the carpet but not cause discolouration until exposure to the moisture from the cleaning procedures. Any discolouration found during pre inspection should be brought to the customers attention and noted on the invoice. SOLUTION: Should a colour change occur during a spotting procedure due to an indicator dye: 1) Flush area with plain water. 2) Apply a chemical opposite on the pH scale. 3) Rinse. An example of this problem would be discolouration caused from rust remover. This can be corrected by treating with an ammonia solution. · Spot or redyeing is possibly a consideration in instances of colour loss however should only be accomplished by qualified, experienced personnel.
SOLUTION: Usually a slight stiffness problem will correct itself after one or two vacuumings. In more severe case pile lifting with a Pile Lifter may be necessary. In more severe cases recleaning the area using the normal amount of detergent for good soil suspension and to reduce soil re-deposition will usually correct the problem. Following the cleaning of problem stiff carpets, sour the carpet lightly with Cleancare Textile Rinse to neutralise any detergent residues. Always set the pile with a groomer or nap brush after cleaning. Post dry vacuuming may be necessary following wet cleaning procedures.
CAUSE: Corn Rowing is found in many cut pile carpets. Much like the effect of a wind storm will have a corn field, corn rowing is the effect of traffic bending rows of yarn tufts over filling voids in between the rows, leaving the surface with a ribbed effect. The width of these lines will vary depending on carpet pile height and density. SOLUTION: Corn rowing can be most effectively managed by accelerated maintenance procedures. Vacuum cleaners should have revolving brush/beater bar. Pile lifting with Pile Lifter will do a better job. Raking with a carpet groomer parallel to the ribs will help a great deal. This condition once it has developed will likely re occur as it is often due to under specified carpet.
CAUSE: Crocking is the term given to describe an unstable or fugitive dye that is capable of easily being removed or will migrate with agitation. Dry crocking is the removal or transfer of dye while in a dry state. Wet crocking or bleeding is the migration or transfer of dyestuff while the fibre is wet. SOLUTION: Should dry crocking be encountered, it is a good indication that the carpet should not be cleaned. A complete customer risk should be obtained before proceeding any further with the work. Occasionally a carpet that will wet crock may stabilise by using an acidic cleaning solution. Cleancare Textile Rinse is designed to stabilise many fugitive dyes. Should the fabric continue to crock, consider using dry powder or low moisture cleaning procedures, but pretest these first.
CAUSE: Although it has been determined that moisture is not the actual cause of many delamination problems, it can be a contributing factor. Delamination occurs as a result of either normal wear, tearing, age, the result of an inadequate adhesive formula, or improper application at the manufacturing level. As Latex (the adhesive used to glue the primary and the secondary backing together) ages it becomes hard and brittle The normal movement of the carpet backing as a result of use caused the adhesive bond to break down. This problem may not be noticed until the carpet is exposed to moisture from a routine cleaning procedure. The moisture from the causes normal shrinkage or expansion of backing materials and the problem becomes noticeable next to a seam opening or ripples in high traffic areas. SOLUTION: Overall delamination of large areas are usually not practical to correct. Delaminated seams can be reglued. Carpet seaming latex adhesive should be injected as far as possible into the delaminated seam. The carpet should be completely dry and backing materials relaxed before attempting to reglue seams. Carpet stretching tools may be necessary in severe cases. This should be done by experienced carpet repair technicians only.
CAUSE: Excessive foaming is caused by detergent/soap residues that are left in the carpet from previous cleanings or spottings. Over use of chemicals or the use of improper chemicals can also cause excessive foaming. Excessive foaming can drastically reduce hot water/steam extraction cleaning process effectiveness. Over wetting can result from foaming residues that restrict airflow in vacuum systems. Excellarated resoiling can also be a problem if residues are left in carpet fibres. SOLUTIONS: Thorough rinsing of carpet fibres is necessary. The use of Cleancare Textile Rinse will help neutralise detergent residues. Defoaming agents may also be necessary to effectively accomplish this. Cleancare manufactures two types of defoamers, a liquid and a crystal. Do not apply liquid defoamers directly to carpet fibres. Liquid defoamers are silicone bases and can cause resoiling if sprayed directly to carpet fibres.Liquid defoamers should be applied directly into vacuum hoses to counteract foam build up in hoses and vacuum systems. Cleancare's Anti-Foam is designed to broadcast over the entire effected carpet area to prevent foaming. Cleancare Anti-Foam does not leave a residue when used properly.
CAUSE: Transfer of wood stains onto damp carpet from unprotected furniture legs or solid bases not set on drying pads or blocks. This is unfortunately the technicians responsibility. Furniture stains may also result from water damage or spillage. SOLUTION: The success of removal of wood stain will be determined by the fibre type and type of stain that has been transfered. If a stain is encountered during the cleaning process or while arranging furniture on damp carpets. Clean/extract immediately. If not completely removed by extracting with normal cleaning solution, apply Cleancare Energizer. Traffic Lane Cleaner is also a very effective high pH spotter. Time is critical as some dyes will set very quickly. Once the carpet has dried, little can be done and any procedure should be considered restorative. One effective methods is to shear the problem out of the carpet if it has not wicked too deep into the pile. If commercial carpet shears are not available, an electric hair trimmer, or a heavy duty animal shear equipped with available surgical blades can be a real lifesaver for small areas. Never attempt to shear a loop style carpet. If the stain is too deep to consider shearing the following procedures can be attempted. 1. Apply liberal amounts of DriSol. 2. Apply high Traffic Lane Energizer, rinse and extract. 3. Apply Rust Remover Gel (follow cautions), rinse and extract. 4. Some success has resulted from using Cleancare's Rescue Kit. The heat transfer methods may also be employed, but with caution.
CAUSE :Incomplete soil removal can be caused by many factors. · Improper chemical usage. · Equipment not functioning properly. · Poor selection of cleaning process for soil conditions. · Improper workmanship. · Lack of proper pre-vacuuming. SOLUTION: If poor cleaning, resulting in incomplete soil removal occurs, the following items should be considered to insure proper re servicing is accomplished.
NOTE: Always take the time to do the job right. the old saying, "There is always time to do the job right if there is time to do it over", certainly applies to carpet cleaning.
CAUSE: Mildew is always present in our environment. Mildew spores are carried by air movement and are found virtually everywhere. Mildew doesn't become a problem until it becomes active and begins to grow. For mildew to become active it must have a damp, dark, warm environment and organic matter. As mildew becomes active and grows, it requires food in the form of organic matter. Mildew is not an odour problem until it becomes active. Mildew becomes active above 20°C and below 30°C. The odour associated with mildew in its active state is caused from the gases that are produced as mildew digests organic matter. Mildew can easily be recognised by its black, greenish, or grey spots or discolouration on the material which it thrives. The resulting damage from mildew damage is called dry rot. Dry rot results in weakening of fibres or in very severe cases complete disintegration. SOLUTION: Mildew can be controlled by treating with Cleancare Kill Odor (aquat disinfectant). Always employ proper drying techniques to control the growth of mildew and dry rot: Cleancare's Turbo Dryers. Once dry rot has occurred little can be done to reverse the effect it has had on the material. For more information on mildew refer to the section on deodorising.
CAUSES: Many odour problems are lying dormant in carpets. Urine, mildew and other biological odour may already be present in a carpet. Because these odour problems require moisture involved in a normal routine clean procedure. An increase in humidity from a cleaning procedure can also make other existing odour problems detectable. SOLUTION: Usually after the carpet dries completely, the odours will become dormant again. This doesn't mean the problem has been corrected. If biological odours are encountered as a result of the moisture from the cleaning process an application of Cleancare Kill Odor should be considered. Always follow the use instructions. In causes of urine odours, use Cleancare Urine Contamination Treatment. If this does not cure the problem, more involved procedures may be necessary. For more information on odours, refer to the Cleancare Deodorisation Module.
CAUSE: Over wetting of carpet is the cause of most cleaning related problems. It can be caused from the following items:
SOLUTION: Insure vacuum system is operating properly. Re extraction of excess moisture. Employ proper drying technique. The following is a listing of principals that will effect the drying process:
Air conditioning units act as dehumidifiers.
CAUSE: Pile distortion can be caused by the following: A pressure setting that is too high or solution jets placed too close to the carpet can cause severe distortion. Excessive heat on true plush carpets can cause fibre distortion . (true plush carpets are manufactured from non heatset twisted yarns) Unsightly marks left in carpeting from cleaning tools and shampoo brushes are the fault of the technician. Following any cleaning procedure the carpet pile should be "set" with a carpet groomer or pile brush. Grooming rakes are adequate in most instances, however, in carpets with fine textures, a pile brush in necessary. This should be done shortly after the carpet is cleaned and before it dries. Once the carpet dries it may be too late. SOLUTION: Avoid high solution pressures and tools that place solution jets too close to the carpet. Reduce heat settings when cleaning plush carpets. Sometimes raking, vacuuming or pile lifting after the carpet is dry may be effective. If these procedures are not successful, the area may need to be re wet and properly groomed. Carpets and rugs with extra fine finishes such as velvets and orientials, may be a problem even showing marks from nap brushes after drying. These special problem carpets and rugs may require using steamers and fine brushes to restore the original final.
CAUSE: Spots can reappear for several reasons. There is a difference between the cause of spots that reappear immediately after cleaning as the carpet dries, and those that take several days or weeks to reappear. Usually those that appear upon drying are caused from incomplete removal of accumulated soil. As the carpet dries, accumulated soils deep in the pile that have been emulsified and not extracted can wick to the surface as the carpet dries. Browning or water stains can also appear to have been removed and reappear as the carpet dries (consult the browning section for further information). Incomplete removal of residues that adhere to fibres can also be responsible for the reappearance of spots. Residues left oily type substances can re attract and hold soils if not completely removed. Often times a spot caused from an oily type substance will appear to clean very quickly and assumed to have been removed. In fact only the visible soils that cling to these residues are removed and the oily soils remain to re attract more soil. SOLUTION:
Problem spots that continue to wick to the surface after cleaning can be treated in the following manner:
Olefin carpet is notorious for its wicking problems, due to its non absorbent nature. Should wicking problems occur after extraction of Olefin carpets, subsequent light cleaning with the Bonnet methods is useful. this will reduce the chances of the wicking problem re occurring.
CAUSE: Residues that are detectable after cleaning can be caused by the following:
SOLUTION: Always use quality chemicals that do not leave sticky or tacky residues. A simple test to determine the type of residue of any chemical that you are considering for use is as follows:
CAUSE: Shading often mistakenly called pooling, puddling, or water marking has perplexed carpet and fibre producers for years. Shading is found in some oriental rugs and is found in varying degrees in virtually all cut pile carpets and rugs both woven and tufted, domestic and imported. It is caused by a difference in the way light is reflected from the tips of the yarns of tufts on the surface of the carpet. Shading takes many shapes from straight line often mistaken for seams, to complexed free form designs. Shading is often mistaken for water stains. Shading is not a manufacturing defect and little can be done to prevent it. SOLUTION: Shading is not correctable. The effects of shading can be slightly managed by accelerated maintenance procedures. Daily raking and periodic overall cleaning may help in some instances. Do not guarantee the removal or correction of shading under any circumstances.
CAUSE: Shrinkage almost always occurs in carpet, both woven and tufted, that have natural backing materials. The cause of shrinkage is the natural swelling expansion of fibres which occur as they absorb moisture. As these fibres absorb moisture, they become larger in diameter and require more space. This causes stress on the interwoven structure which results in shrinkage. Once the fabric is dry, this stress is no longer present as the fibres return to their natural size. It is important to inspect a carpet and its installation prior to every cleaning job. Be extremely cautious of woven backings and make certain all installations are secure before cleaning. Widthwise shrinkage in Axminster carpet, because of the jute stuffer yarn that runs widthwise, can be extremely difficult or impossible to restretch. Special adhesive seam tapes or sewn seams should be used when seaming Axminster carpets. Polyproplene backings tend to shrink less or not at all when compared to jute backings. Any evidence of shrinkage prior to cleaning should be brought to the customers attention and noted on the invoice. SOLUTION: Any repairs should be made prior to cleaning the carpet. Never attempt to restretch a shrunken carpet until completely dry. After the carpet is completely dry, standard power stretching techniques can be employed. Delaminated or loose seams should be reseamed or repaired before restretching. With the exception of Axminster carpets as noted above, most carpet shrinkages resulting from cleaning can be corrected.
CAUSES: The term soil filtration refers to those unsightly dark lines that occur along edges of carpet, under doors and draperies and can also occur in random locations Soil filtration is caused from the fine soil particles carried by air currents. Just as the fibrous structure of an air filter in an air conditioning unit is capable of trapping soils as the air passes through, carpet fibres will also act as a soil filter. Soil filtration lines are always located in areas that receive a constant flow of air. Doors that usually remain closed will develop soil filtration lines underneath due to constant air passage beneath the door. Pressure develops as air is forced into a room. This pressure tries to equalise with other areas of the building must pass through the space under the door. In doing so, soil is filtered by the carpet fibres. This same problem can occur under draperies or furniture or can be caused by a space in the flooring or at the base of a wall or stairway. Tears or holes in carpet backing caused by installation tools is also a common location of soil filtration. The nature of this fine particulate soil and airborne oils, can make soil filtration lines very difficult and sometimes impossible to remove. SOLUTION: One solution for removing soil filtration lines is a mixture of Cleancare Heavy Duty Soil Lifter. Prevacuum the effected area thoroughly. The Heavy Duty Soil Lifter solution should be sprayed directly on the effected area and agitated into the pile. Allow five to ten minutes and flow with vigorous extraction utilising a chop stroke. The problem will re occur unless the air flow is stopped. It may be necessary to redirect forced air vents, install vents in doors in rooms that are not equipped with air returns and seal cracks in flooring and wall bases. Soil filtration lines are locally caused and are not the fault of the carpet manufacturer or cleaner.
CAUSE: Sprouts are loose or unattached yarns that protrude above the normal pile height. Occasionally a tuft will work itself loose in any carpet. This is normal and unless very excessive, not considered a manufacturing defect. SOLUTION:
CAUSE: Static electricity build up can occur in both natural and synthetic carpets. Static electricity is caused by the rubbing together of dissimilar materials. The continued rubbing, contact and separation causes a high voltage charge to build up in both materials. Carpet fibres and shoe soles are dissimilar materials and by walking across a carpet the human body can build up quite a charge. This charge is released or grounded upon contact with a source of a ground. A doorknob, handrail or another person act as an excellent ground. Just prior to contact the build up static charge jumps across a tiny air gap resulting in a SHOCK!! As the relative humidity goes down the potential for static build up is increased. SOLUTION: Static build up can be controlled by increasing humidity or moisture in the environment by the use of humidifiers. Topical antistatic treatments can be very effective in reducing static build up however, they last only a short time (3-6 months) as they can be worn off. Sticky residues can also be a problem with some topical treatments. Cleancare 's Staticare will not leave a sticky residue and will actually retard resoiling. Household fabric softener has been used, however, it will leave a bad residue which greatly increase resoiling. Fabric softeners should never be used on stain resistant carpets. Always test for sticky, tacky residues when considering any topical treatments. Conductive yarns and carpet backings are a more permanent remedy for permanent static control. These work by grounding the carpet. You may suggest to a customer that has a repeated static problem, replacement of existing carpet with a built in antistatic feature.
CAUSE: Carpet yellowing other than cellulosic browning has many causes.
SOLUTION: Although there are many causes of carpet yellowing the corrective solution is generally the same. Extraction cleaning or re cleaning using Cleancare Textile Rinse with a post application of Citric acid (5-10% solution) will effectively correct most yellowing problems. The 10% solution is best rinsed from the carpet using hot water 4-5 days after treatment. It should be noted that atmospheric gases, oxidised stains and PVC are permanent yellow conditions.
PLEASE NOTE: These procedures and recommendations have been compiled in order to assist the professional cleaner. CLEANCARE AUSTRALIA do not warrant these procedures expressed or implied, nor assume any liability or responsibility whatsoever in connection with their use.